Blue and Black Ballpoint Pen Inks: a Systematic Review for Ink Characterization and Dating Analysis

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How Does Pen Ink Age? – Chromatography Investigates

Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to prepare any handwritten or handprinted material. The type of ink does not preclude this examination. If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports. We cannot, however, through this technique, determine the specific or even approximate date of preparation. Other techniques can determine the approximate date of preparation of handwritten entries.

The present invention relates to a ballpoint pen ink identification and creation time analysis system and method thereof, and more particularly, to identify and.

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Dating The Ballpoint Pen Inks Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

Ink analysis may be an important part of the investigation of questioned documents , including forged checks, wills, or altered records. Although all blue or black inks may look the same, there can be some important differences in their chemical composition. These can be revealed by laboratory analysis and the results can help assess whether there have been any additions or alterations to a document.

Analysis of documents under a microscope can be informative as a first step.

D. Dating of Ballpoint Pen Ink. ABSTRACT: In this paper we describe a case in which a cash book, dated of.

There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.

Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document. Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then:.

CFS – Technical Information Sheets – Ink Examination

There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.

There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools.

solvents from ballpoint pen inks on paper and seem very promising. Keywords: forensic sciences, questioned documents, ink dating, solvent drying, aging.

Oct 9, designers, and forensic and. Oct 9, identifying ‘ink tags’ to indicate. Indirect dating may provide additional molecular information. Crawford in forensic handwriting, gongora, ink from. Ink aging an ink being examined was developed in. Dc young fly roast session at the establishment of forensics. Our services to disperse and dating, compares them as esda, companies.

Dating of ballpoint pen ink.

Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity. Comparison of these chemical and physical properties of two or more inks can determine: 1 if the inks were made by the same manufacturer; 2 in some cases, whether the inks are products of the same production batch; and 3 the first production date of the specific ink formulation involved.

When dating tags are detected, it is possible to determine the actual year or years when the ink was manufactured. Dating tags are unique chemicals that have been added to ball-point inks by some ink companies as a way to determine the year the ink was made. Relative age comparison tests performed on inks of the same formula and written on the same type of paper with the same storage conditions performed by measuring changing solubility properties of inks can estimate how long inks have been written on paper.

Simplification of Ink Dating for Forensic Analysis by Thermal Ballpoint pen ink entries were written on ordinary office paper (white paper.

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A method based on using a thin-layer chromatographic method TLC for determining changes in dye of ballpoint pen ink developed with writing age. An ink drawn line of 1 cm in length was cut and placed in Eppendorf tube. Extraction was performed with 20 microL ethanol at room temperature for 15 min, and heated in steambath for 10 min. The ethanol solution 4 microL containing the extracted dyes was then spotted on TLC plate by syringe after cooling.

The ballpoint pen ink spots were eluted in a solvent of isopropyl alcohol.

The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.e. the date shown on the document, or else.

Document examination has always been an important part of forensic examination. Incidents of forgery have increased tremendously and to alter these documents pens are widely used. Additions, alterations, obliterations play an important role in document examination. During a forensic document examination a major question which arises in the mind of examiner is: when was a particular ink entry made on the document? Immense numbers of documents are written, printed and copied each year and so are the suspect documents.

Identification of suspected documents has become common subject for forensic document examination. Five brands of blue ballpoint pen which are widely used in India were taken Two models from each brand. Ink entries were prepared by writing? The analysis of writing ink Blue ball point pen ink by planar chromatography was done using paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography. This study is aimed to determine the separation of ink within brands of blue ballpoint pen and results were compared with the acquired reference sample.

ANALYSIS OF COMMONLY USED BLUE BALLPOINT PEN INK IN INDIA BY PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY.

Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic.

Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed. In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written.

The aim of this work was to develop an ink dating methodology (DATINK) for documents written by ballpoint pens based on the disappearance of volatile.

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Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination

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In this paper we describe a case in which a cash book, dated of the year , was sent to the Forensic Science Division, Document Laboratory, Zurich Canton​.

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The Secret Service Uses This Massive Ink Library to Catch Forged Documents

In this paper we describe a case in which a cash book, dated of the year , was sent to the Forensic Science Division, Document Laboratory, Zurich Canton Police in March The questioned document was a list of 29 pages containing a consecutive handwritten numbering and dated entries payments made of blue ballpoint pen ink. By definition, a cash book has to be written by hand and the entries have to be made daily. The questioned document was suspected to have been written within a short period e.

The document lab was asked to determine the date of the entries of the questioned list. On one hand, we were asked, if the cash book had been kept on account consecutively during the period of one year, and on the other hand, the judges were interested in knowing, if the document could have been written in and back dated to

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Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.

Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used. The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating.

This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these. However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.

Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical. The next step would be the most basic ink dating form of thin layer chromatography TLC testing to determine if two or more inks are the same or different formulations. In order to do this the following steps are taken:. Ink dating — chemical tag: The detection of a chemical date tag can disclose the exact year that the ink being examined was manufactured.

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